Using Picture Books to Reinforce Math Concepts
By Monica Olivera
In recent years, a mini-explosion of math-themed picture books has hit the children’s section in bookstores. More and more educators are taking advantage of these engaging books to help reinforce the math concepts that they are teaching in class, and parents can use them, too.
Counting books are especially valuable tools for helping toddlers and preschoolers learn basic math skills. We’re fortunate that there are so many counting books in a variety of themes now available for parents to choose from. As you read these books with your child, take the time to point to each object as you slowly count, and encourage your child to count with you. 123 Si!: An Artistic Counting Book in English and Spanish by the San Antonio Museum of Art is a clever book that not only teaches children to count, but also introduces works of art from around the world. From Egyptian statues to Mexican wooden masks to Korean ink drawings, your child will learn their numbers and get an art history lesson, too!
Learning shapes is one of the basic concepts your preschooler needs to learn before entering kindergarten. When you read shape books, ask your child to point to the different shapes on the page, and then have them find similar shapes around your house to strengthen their abilities to identify circles, squares, rectangles, triangles and the like. With the interactive board book, My Very First Book of Shapes / Mi primer libro de figuras: Bilingual Edition by Eric Carle, your child gets to match the image on the bottom of the page with the correct shape on the top and are rewarded with fun pictures like ladybugs and kites.
Teaching your child about symmetry can seem quite daunting unless you have some visual aids to help you explain the concept. That’s why I love Lorren Leedy’s Seeing Symmetry, which helps children understand what it is and how to find lines of symmetry in the world around them. Your child will be challenged to find center points, as well as vertical and horizontal lines of symmetry. When you read this book with your child, keep an index card or small piece of paper nearby so you can cover half the image to better explain the concept.
After your children have mastered counting from one to ten, it’s time to challenge them to learn how to count to 20, 30, and up to 100. Once they’ve done this, they can even begin skip counting. Curious George Learns to Count from 1 to 100 by H. A. Rey is a fun to help your child learn these bigger numbers with the help of one of their favorite PBS KIDS characters. And you can continue the learning after you finish reading, by letting your child play the online Curious George math games found in the PBS KIDS Lab.
Of course few children can resist the chance to become a detective and discover the answers to clues and riddles. So if you have a tiny Sherlock Holmes in your family, consider Bedtime Math by Laura Overdeck. Written for children ages 3 and up, this book poses riddles and mysteries for your child to solve. The best part is that this book grows with your child as each story poses three math challenges: one for “wee ones,” another for “little kids,” and a final one for “big kids.” This book is definitely a must-have for all family home libraries.
Older children starting kindergarten and first grade are ready to develop their addition and subtraction skills. The Chicken Problem by Jennifer Oxley and Billy Aronson is a really fun book based on the new PBS KIDS show, Peg + Cat premiering Monday, October 7, 2013. In the book, Peg and Cat are enjoying a picnic on the farm with their friend, Pig. When they discover someone has left the door open to the chicken coop and 100 little chicks have escaped, it is up to Peg and her friends to use their math-solving skills to find a solution and make sure they round up all the little chicks. Your child will love seeing all the different ways that Peg and Cat use math throughout the book.
How to Help our Daughters Succeed in Math
by Maria Lando, TheMathMom.com
Of course girls can do math, enjoy math and excel at math just as much, if not more than boys.
But many of us grew up in a society that did not think that way. As girls, we received little support or encouragement when it comes to math – from family, teachers or mass media.
Luckily, times have changed. Hundreds of scientific studies in the US and around the world have concluded that, everything else being equal, girls perform as well as boys in math – and sometimes even better. One of the latest comprehensive studies conducted across 65 countries found that “mathematic performance of students largely reflects the academic standards and expectations of the community in which they are raised. Specifically, home environment is a primary determinant for success of children in school.”
So if the key to girls’ success in math comes down to our home enviroments, our communities and our expectations, let's see what we can do to help our daughters succeed in math.
1. Raise your and your child’s excitement. Just like reading, math is all around us. When we encourage our children to read, we point out letters and words; we share stories and books; we demonstrate that reading is important, necessary and fun. Treat math similarly. Demonstrate that numbers are everywhere: talk about how many groceries you’re buying; compare shapes, sizes and volumes; highlight patterns; count out money at the register; describe measurements while you are cooking. Stimulate your own excitement and the kids will absorb it. You don't have to be a pro and know all the answers, but you have to be excited! For additional reinforcement, science museums and children’s museums usually have plenty of math-related toys and special math or engineering programs for kids. There are also quite a few shows on TV that bring math to life. A new preschool math series, PEG + CAT, premieres on PBS KIDS Monday, October 7 – its star is a spirited young girl who saves the day through math, with help from her friends.
2. Offer a math-sports analogy. In sports or ballet, one has to practice the same motion hundreds of times to perfect it and strengthen one’s skill. It’s the same with math, except it’s our brain muscles that need a workout. We all have to “train” no matter what the activity is – soccer, dance moves, identifying shapes, sorting colors or counting to 100! Practice makes perfect, and in the end, it all adds up to one big victory.
3. Find the right context. You’ve probably noticed how a movie or a book suddenly becomes much more captivating when it matches your age, thoughts, or interests. Blend math into your daughter's favorite things to make it relevant and easier to absorb. If she is fascinated with butterflies, count butterflies outside, or make up some simple butterfly addition problems she can solve. Choose math games and apps that have girl-friendly context. The PBS KIDS Lab also offers plenty of online games and activities with kids’ favorite characters.
4. Show her some math role models. It may be your neighbor who is an accountant and enjoys her job, or a woman university professor that’s in the news for making a big discovery; a female pilot or an astronaut; or the animator of your daughter’s favorite movie. Tell her about them, Google them together, ask your child to imagine how they might use math in their jobs. My own life-math story is here.
Encouraging girls’ interest in math is in our hands, and it is not so hard. As with any hobby, encourage it, stimulate it, make it fun… hold high but age-appropriate expectations… and don't be afraid to make mistakes and learn from them.
Starting with the Answer
By Matt B. Gomez http://mattbgomez.com
The hardest part about teaching young learners skills like grouping, adding, and decomposing numbers is giving them an opportunity to discover the "tricks" on their own. Since adults know and see how numbers go together, the instinct is to teach them what we know. It is often difficult to step back and let the learning happen. One of my favorite ways to encourage this process is by starting with the answer.
For our youngest learners, this can be done with simple storytelling. At the beginning of the year, my Kindergarten class often "starts with the answer," and I always try to incorporate a student's interest into the story. For example, Tracy loves alpacas, so I tell the class the answer is 6 alpacas. I then ask the class, “What is the problem?” The kids use their fingers or manipulatives to work out the answer to my question. These problems encourage higher order thinking and, more importantly, allow for many different answers. The kids then share their answers and hear how other kids are thinking about math. Kids teaching kids is always powerful.
A free app I use frequently for this activity is Educreations, a virtual whiteboard that allows you to record both the whiteboard screen and audio as the kids work out the problem. A low-tech option, called build that number, uses playing cards and a “magic number.” PBS KIDS also has some great online math games that give kids practice building to an answer in addition. Curious George Train Station is for younger kids and Cyberchase Spaceship Power-Up gives older kids practice decomposing the number 10.
Regardless of whether your child is just starting to learn about addition or is an addition expert, I hope "starting with the answer" will be a fun way to encourage higher order thinking and learning through discovery this summer.
This is What Math Learning Looks Like
By Teacher Tom
As a preschool teacher, I know that there is no reason why math shouldn't be fun for kids.
After all, math is a process of learning increasingly complex and wonderful ways to do things that we like. When we boil it down, math is basically -- patterning, classifying, and sorting -- which is ultimately the foundation of analytical thinking.
We enter the world as mathematicians, exploring all the ways we can order our world and craving an understanding of the logic of things. We repeat our mathematical inquiries over and over.
Tom Hunter wrote a brilliant, simple song, which he later turned into a children's book, Build It Up and Knock It Down:
Build it up
And knock it down
And build it up again.
Knock it down
And build it up
And knock it down again.
Subsequent verses echo the same circular, two-step pattern, so familiar to the natural play of young children. Turn it on and turn it off and turn it on again. Pick it up and put it down and pick it up again. Put it in and take it out and put it in again. It might drive us crazy as adults, it might seem to us like they're stuck, but really the children are simply testing their formula and practicing it until it's second nature: A-B-A-B-A-B . . .
Young children in the course of their play, go on to discover increasingly complex patterns all around them. They use those discoveries to learn important things like how to take turns in a board game and engage in a meaningful process of many steps.
Play itself is impossible without the ability to think logically. That's why we're driven to mathematical play. These are things we really must know in order to satisfy our curiosities. There is no greater motivator than the prospect of discovery.
When we put blocks in a box or when we line things up, we are mathematicians discovering for ourselves the classifications and patterns of the world.
Math is a process of discovery and should be fun for learners of all ages.
The opposite of play isn't work, it's rote. ~Edward Hallowell
Easy Activities That Teach Math Concepts
By Monica Olivera http://www.mommymaestra.com
More and more parents are taking an active role in preparing their young children for school. Chances are if you are reading this, you’re one of them. But many parents who focus on teaching pre-literacy skills sometimes forget that teaching basic math concepts are equally important for academic success. And as we discovered in the PBS KIDS survey, nearly 30 percent of parents reported anxiety about teaching their children math.
Matt and Maria have already shared some great ideas for building early math skills with a digital camera or in everyday situations. So I’d like to share some fun activities using household items for children in preschool or younger.
Beans of Every Color
So many teaching opportunities can be found in your own kitchen. I like beans because they can be used in so many different ways. If you have a variety of beans (lima beans, pinto beans, black beans, etc.), you can pour a cupful into the center section of a dip tray, then ask your child to sort them according to color or size. Sorting and categorizing is a valuable skill for young children to master before they learn to graph and analyze data in elementary school.
You might also have your child create their own bean counters using lima beans, wood sticks (popsicle sticks), and glue. Have your child glue 10 beans on each stick and then allow them to dry. This is a fun way to teach your child how to count from 1 to 10 through repetition. Save the counters for future use when your child starts to learn how to count by tens, or to study place value. I have a complete tutorial on making bean counters on my website.
As always, be sure to monitor your child when he/she plays with beans as they can be a choking hazard.
Fruits & Veggies
To teach your child to recognize colors and patterns, fruits and vegetables are handy tools. On your next trip to the grocery store, ask your child to find you a red/orange/green fruit or vegetable. Pick out several different fruits and veggies, and then when you get home, put them in a pile on your kitchen table and ask your child to sort them by color. You can also use this opportunity to talk about the differences between a fruit and a vegetable.
Animal-shaped crackers, like goldfish and teddy bears, are great props for creating some, more stories to practice basic addition, or some, some went away stories to practice basic subtraction. For example, you can tell your child, three little fish went for a swim. One more came along. How many little fish are there now? Or you might say, five bears got on the bus, but at the next stop, two got off. How many were left?
If you haven’t downloaded the bilingual PBS Parents Play & Learn app, you can do so here. Inside you’ll find lots of ideas for developing early math skills for children up to five years old. It’s divided into 13 different categories of teachable moments, and each one has four activities that are age specific: one for baby, one for toddlers, and two for preschoolers. All the activities use everyday situations to teach math. Some require simple household items, while others use items found on a trip to the grocery store or restaurant.