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earth and space


hassan, KS | (none)
ther is a tornado now aaaaaaaaaaaaaaah!

hassan, KS | (none)
ther is a tornado now aaaaaaaaaaaaaaah!

merrie, PA | (none)
well Isiah, have you heard of the Earthquake in japan that cuased a tidle wave and a flood. it killed lots of people.

moriah, IN | (none)

alexis , FL | (none)
i need a good website for solar panels PLEASE HELP!

Isiah, NY | (none)
There are 12 types of earthquakes.The 12th type the horrible-est.Well the Haitian was very bad; 7 on the richter scale.

Reid, CO | (none)
Did you know? Valcanos (Well it sais im spelling Valcanos wrong so im just going to spell it my way) cause earthquakes. Fact about me: .Im almost all the time on Roblox, Wizard101 AND other stuff so tnx!

lori, TX | (none)

Destiny, OH | (none)
i dreamed of a devise that might defect earthquakes if sighted. the radar scan moblizes the earthquake to hit elsewhere. if it dosnt work,the devise forms a huge temporary energy shield to block the earthquakes hit then forces it around the energy shield to the other side of the energy shield. what are your opinions,Don?

amanda, NY | (none)
ka boom is the noise you here

Don, CA | (none)
Hi Annissa. There are many links and sites on the internet that covers what to do before, during and after and earthquake. The one thing I try to impress upon people is not to try and run outside during an earthquake. More people are injured or killed by falling walls. In almost every quake walls will fall outward and people are injured and killed by those falling walls. Some of the best places to stay during a quake is under a sturdy table or desk. Other good places to stay is to sit on the floor at an inside corners or hallways. I have a cloth bag with extra shoes, socks, underwear, change of clothes, gloves, bottled water, maps, flashlight, extra batteries, strike anywhere matches, cold chemical lights and small pocket knife and some rope. I have all of this tied to the foot of my bed. Once again don't try to run outside during an earthquake. Wait for the quake to stop they try to get out. I know it's the hardest thing in the world to do, but staying in one place during the quake is one of best ways to safe your life. Know where all of the safe locations in the building are and get to one of them. Then tell the quake to knock it off. The one below is from Allstate Insurance Company. Preparation Tips Develop an earthquake safety action plan for your family identifying places that can provide the highest amount of protection during an earthquake as well as an escape route and off-premises meeting place. Become familiar with your community's disaster preparedness plan. Teach family members how to shut off water, gas and electricity to the house. Purchase at least one multi-purpose dry chemical fire extinguisher. Install smoke detectors and change the batteries every six months. Prepare an emergency supplies kit including a three day supply of bottled water and non-perishable food, as well as a manual can opener, paper plates, cups, utensils, first-aid kit, flashlight and battery-operated radio with extra batteries. Retrofit your home's structure to better withstand the forces of an earthquake. This is a job for a professional architect, engineer or building contractor. Retrofit nonstructural areas of your home to protect your personal property. Attach cabinets and bookcases to the wall using brackets. Secure heavy objects (e.g. television, stereos, computers, armoires) with brackets or safety straps. Secure picture frames, bulletin boards and mirrors to walls using closed eye screws into wall studs. Secure ceiling lights to supports using safety cables. Apply safety film to windows and glass doors. Anchor large appliances (e.g. refrigerator, stove) to walls using safety cables or straps. Install flexible gas lines and automatic gas shutoff valves. Tack down glassware, heirlooms and figurines with putty. Install latches on kitchen cabinet doors to prevent items from falling. Safety Tips At the first sign of an earthquake, drop and take cover under a sturdy piece of furniture or against an inside wall away from objects that may fall on you. Sit or stay close to the floor and hold on to furniture legs for balance. Use your arm to cover and protect your eyes. If there's no sturdy furniture nearby, kneel or sit close to the floor next to a structurally sound interior wall away from windows, shelves, or furniture that could fall and place your hands on the floor for balance. Stay away from doorways, violent motion could cause the doors to slam against your body, crush your fingers or inflict other serious injuries. Do not run outside. If outdoors, quickly move into the open, away from electrical lines, trees and buildings. If driving, bring your vehicle to a stop at the side of the road away from traffic. Do not stop on or under bridges, near or under power lines or road signs. Recovery Tips Be alert for aftershocks. Look for injured victims and administer first aid. Pay attention to damaged utilities. Avoid loose or dangling electric power lines and report all gas and electrical problems to the proper authorities. Turn off any damaged utilities. Check for fire hazards and use flashlights instead of candles or lanterns. Wear protective shoes. Have them by your bed in case the earthquake happens in the middle of the night. If your building is sound, stay inside and listen for radio advisories. http://earthquakes.suite101.com/article.cfm/preparing_for_an_earthquake http://earthquake.usgs.gov/prepare/

anissa, CA | (none)
earthquakes are scary . If we try to protect ourselves how do we.

LOGAN, AL | (none)

Emmi O., CA | (none)
I live in california,and Hate earthquakes isn't that funny??

Don, CA | (none)
Hi Jasmine. Good question. Lets take a package of dominoes and lay them out on a table side by side and let us call that the surface of the earth. Pretty flat isn't it? Now lets take and apply a little pressure to one side of those dominoes and start pushing doing it very slowly. Lets watch the surface of those dominoes and see how they start to change. Keep in mind were only applying pressure from just one side. Now let start applying pressure from another side and see how this changes the surface of the dominoes. The pressure is being caused by the movement of the plates. They in turn cause the earthquakes and in many cases they also cause volcanoes. The movement of the plates may cause part of the land to slide under another part, or over another part. It will try to push it past another part, it may even try to pull one part away from another part. As you can see it's not the earthquakes or the volcanoes that cause the land to change, but the movement of plates that causes the earthquakes and the volcanoes to cause the land to change. Because of the contact of the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate the Sierra Nevada Mountains are rising at the rate of about 1/3 of inch per 100 years, but erosion is causing them to loose about 1/3 of an inch per 100 years. The very ground you walk on everyday is moving. It's just doing it so slowly that you never notice it, except of course when we have a earthquake and then things really get to moving and in all different directions. In many ways I'm thankful for earthquakes and plate movements for this world would be be very dull looking place if we didn't have them. I just wish they didn't have to be so destructive. Take Care...Don

Isra, MN | (none)
what structure should you use for an earthquake-safe building? it's for my homewrk but i'm clueless about what i should do for the drawing. P.S. i'm not an arcitect

jasmine, OH | (none)
if earthquakes did not exist, how might that affect what the surface of the Earth could look like.

Don, CA | (none)
Hi Tyler. Very good question as will as some good thinking. While it is possible the fault that triggered the Haiti quake its not likely to affect the San Andreas fault it could have an affect on the faults in the immediate area. One of those areas would be Dominican Republic, or the Puerto Rico Trench. It's very unlikely to affect Mammoth Mountain or Long Valley Caldera. Did you know that Long Valley Caldera still has the scientists scratching their heads. They don't really know how that volcano formed. The last time it erupted was about 750,000 years ago. They have found ash from it as far east as Kansas. It is called the Bishop Tuff. The volcano was not formed by a hot spot or subduction. The crust in the area is 16 miles thick so there is a possibility that it is a fissure volcano. This is cause by a crack in the earth and magma ejects through that crack. The Siberian Traps are one such fissure volcano. It erupted for 1 million years. If you took all of the magma ejected it would cover the United State 1,000 feet thick. Long Valley Caldera is still very much active. It is located in the Eastern California Shear Zone/Walker Lane Belt. We know where it starts in the south, but have no idea as where it ends in the north. One day the Gulf of California could extend all the way north to Lake Tahoe. In 1872 there was an earthquake that was felt through most of the Western states. There is still some debate as to how large it was, but some say it may have been as large as 8.3M. It is known as the Owens Valley quake. Some say the Sierras Nevada Mountains rose 20 feet while other say the valley dropped as much as 20 feet. I tend to think the valley dropped 20 feet. Which ever way it went there was a lot of movement during the quake. The most devastating effects of this earthquake occurred at Lone Pine, where 52 of 59 houses (mostly constructed of adobe or stone) were destroyed and 27 people were killed. A few fatalities also were reported in other parts of Owens Valley. One report states that the main buildings were thrown down in almost every town in Inyo County. About 100 kilometers south of Lone Pine, at Indian Wells, adobe houses sustained cracks. Property loss has been estimated at $250,000. By 1872 a number of settlements had sprung up along the Owen's Valley. In some towns, including Lone Pine, construction was predominantly brick/adobe. Army buildings at Camp Independence also had thick adobe walls as a defense against bullets and arrows. In other towns, including the town of Independence, wood-frame construction was more common. Most of the wood-frame buildings in Independence survived the 1872 earthquake, but perished when a fire swept through Main Street in 1886. The Edwards House, circa 1868, is a rare survivor of the fire as well as the earthquake. It serves as an example of a well-built frame houses from the era. If you ever get the chance to take a trip to the area you will find it very worthwhile. Don

Ciera, PA | (none)
I have a book of earthquakes It's cool t it's scary some

tyler, CA | (none)
If the San Andreas fault line, and the Haiti fault line are simmilliar and are both in connection with the north american plate, did the Haiti earthquake releave stress, decreasing our chances of a major quake, or increase the possibilities? Tecate Mexico looks like an example of what Haiti was, or somewhere near that like.....Mexicali, or maybe even San Diego? Also, our volcano's in Northern Ca, will they create or trigger the San Andreas or San Jacinto? And what about the Mammoth Mountain Volcano?

emma, KY | (none)
haiti just had an earthquake. did u know haiti is the poorest country on the western hemisphere?

Sydney, MN | (none)
Nayeli, California has more earthquakes than Florida because California lies on a fault, or a place between two of the huge plates that make up the earth's surface. When these plates collide or rub together, an earthquake occours, and Florida does not lie on a Fault.

kel, VA | (none)
I like your show

chels, | (none)
can Earthquakes last for 1 hole day

nayeli, FL | (none)
why does california have more earth quakes than florida

kayla, AK | (none)
earthquakes are really scary

Don, CA | (none)
The main reason we have more quakes in the west is that this is where the plate boundary is. It is known as the San Andreas fault and it is the boundary between the North American Plate and the Pacific Plate. In relation to one another the North American Plate is moving southeast and Pacific Plate is moving northwest. They are sliding past one another and there are many places along this boundary where the two plates stick and it is at these locations where the plates stick that we have quakes. Some places the plates are stuck so tight together that this causes movement further away from the boundary. These quakes occur on smaller faults, which have been caused by the movement of the two plates. Faults can be found almost anywhere however the further away from the plate boundary the less earthquakes there will be. Don

Greg, FL | (none)
I grew up in Calif. and lived through a couple 7 quakes and few 6 . They threw me against the wall and bounced me all around. I managed to look out a window during a 7 quake. I saw waves moving along the ground like if you had snapped a rope or a hose at one end. Whenever a wave hit a fire plug or a gas main...BOOM! Up it went. CalTech has a lot of good links on quakes and loads of data.

Michaela, KY | (none)
Why do more earth quakes occur in the West rather than in the East??

chris, | (none)
what seismic activity and plate movement would occur in new jersey

Don, CA | (none)
Hi Randall. That is an excellent question, but unfortunately it doesn't have a easy answer. The quakes appear to be occurring in a subduction zone. This is where one plate is sliding under another plate. The clue to this is the depth of the quakes. As a rule subduction quakes occur as one single quake, but quakes are famous for not following the rules. My theory, which by the way isn't shared by all is that this is a subduction quake but instead of being one large quake it is many small quakes. Lets say that the one large quake if it were to occur would be a magnitude 7.0, but it is occurring as quakes of magnitude 3.0. It would take more then 1.4 trillion (1,466,408,618,241) magnitude 3.0 quakes occurring one right after the other to equal the same amount of energy released by one magnitude 7.0 quake. Of course if we throw in a 5.0 magnitude quake that would take care of 1,089 magnitude 3.0 quakes and a magnitude 6.0 quake would take care of 1,185,921 magnitude 3.0 quakes. Of course there is no way of proving this until years from now when all of the magnitude 3.0 quakes have occurred, or there is one very large quake. It is sort of like watching fingernails grow. You sit around waiting for something to occur or not occur to prove your theory and even then the proof may not be good enough to prove your theory.

Don, CA | (none)
Hi Steph. Earthquakes occur on the San Andreas fault everyday, but most of them are to small to be felt. There are a couple of areas along the fault where we almost have no quakes at all. This is the Carrizo Plain which is the segment of the fault that lays between Parkfield and Wrighwood. Another area is the segment between San Francisco and Eureka. From USGS Historic Quakes: In 1857 there was a quake that occurred in the area of Cholame, California that is thought to have been more then a 8.0M. This earthquake occurred on the San Andreas fault, which ruptured from near Parkfield (in the Cholame Valley) almost to Wrightwood (a distance of about 300 kilometers); horizontal displacement of as much as 9 meters was observed on the Carrizo Plain. Strong shaking lasted from 1 to 3 minutes. Instances of seiching, fissuring, sandblows and hydrologic changes were reported from Sacramento to the Colorado River delta. Ground fissures were observed in the beds of the Los Angeles, Santa Ana, and Santa Clara Rivers and at Santa Barbara. Sandblows occurred at Santa Barbara and in the flood plain of the Santa Clara River. One report describes sunken trees, possibly associated with liquefaction, in the area between Stockton and Sacramento. Changes in the flow of streams or springs were observed in the areas of San Diego, Santa Barbara, Isabella, and at the south end of San Joaquin Valley. The waters of the Kern, Lake, Los Angeles, and Mokulumme Rivers overflowed their banks. Changes in the flow of water in wells were reported from the Santa Clara Valley in northern California.

Don, CA | (none)
I was posting here a couple years ago as your expert on earthquakes. I stopped posting as research into far field triggering took just about every bit of time I had. I'm retired now, but still do some research. My goal is to get at least one person interested in geology/seismology in the hopes that they one day might solve the problem of predicting the next major quake. Thank you.

sydney, MN | (none)
megan, there may be very minute earthquakes here in minnesota right now, but because we are not located on top of a fault line (a place where tow or more of the earth's plates meet), there is porbably very little to no activity in our home state as far as earthquakes go.

mendy, TX | (none)
why does he earhquake shakes?

alexa, FL | (none)
i love earth quakes.

randall, IN | (none)
why has there been so much recent low intensity earthquake activity in the region around puerto rico?

Veer, TX | (none)
Why do earthquakes exist?

Haley, PA | (none)
can you find a place where many earthquakes occur without volcanoes? is there a place where many volcanoes exist without earthquakes??

nikky, CA | (none)
Why are some places get more earthquakes more than others?

steph, | (none)
how often do earthquakes occur along the san andreas fault line?

murryn, NC | (none)
there was a 20 second earthquake in san fransico californa. it was a 8.1 or a 7.9 earthquake. it caused a lot of damage.

stevie, CA | (none)
hey bobby, I think i have an answer for your question when two tectonic plates collide it makes the earth shake and that can do real damage!

Don, CA | (none)
Hi Rosalinda. As a rule earthquakes won because a volcano to be born unless conditions exist for a volcano to be born. When those conditions are there then it is more likely the volcano caused the quake. In the area of Lake Pillsbury in Northern California a volcano is being born now. At its current growth rate it will take 400,000 years to reach the surface. We know this by the number of quakes that have been occurring in the area and the gases that have been detected at the surface as well as a temperature increase at the surface. A person walking on the surface in the area will not notice the temperature increase, but instruments designed to detect a temperature increase will. Another place where a volcano is being born is in the area of Three Sisters Volcano in Oregon. It is known as the %u201CThe Three Sisters Bulge%u201D. Gases known to exist with volcanoes has been detected at the surface and in some of the springs in the area. These gases are hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and helium 3. Helium 3 is an isotope not found normally at the earth%u2019s surface unless fresh magma is rising towards the surface. The bulge along with the helium 3 is a very good indication that fresh magma is moving towards the surface. In 2003 a swarm of more then 1600 quakes occurred in the Lake Tahoe area. What was unusual about this swarm is that they occurred about 19 miles below the surface. It was also discovered that Slide Mountain rose almost 8 millimeters. This is a pretty good indication that fresh magma has been injected into the lower crust of the earth. Earthquakes caused by the movement of magma are called "Clong period quakes" or "Charmonic tremors" and do not look the same on a seismograph as a tectonic quake. In essence it will be the volcano causing the earthquakes not the earthquakes causing the volcano.

Rosalinda, CA | (none)
Is it possible that an earthquake can creat avolcano and how is the prosses

Bobby, IL | (none)
1 of the earthquakes in Tang Shan is the strongest earthquake in the world.

mario, NH | (none)
I once saw a really bad earthquake on tv.I saw a building fall to the ground.There was also a huge fire.

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